Популярная литература и беллетристика

Какой Элизе Бетховен посвятил "К Элизе"?

Любые уточнения фактов жизни и творчества великого немецкого композитора Людвига ван Бетховена неизменно вызывают живой интерес во всем мире.

И в этом ряду не прошло незамеченным открытие канадского музыковеда Риты Стеблин. Она уточнила, какой именно Элизе посвящено знаменитое рондо, которое в немецких музыкальных пособиях обозначено как "Für Elise", а в российских - "К Элизе".


Памятник Бетховену Макса Клингера (Max Klinger)

Немецкий художник-символист Макс Клингер обдумывал проект создания монумента, посвященного Бетховену, еще в 1880-е годы, во время учебы в Париже. По его словам, идея такой скульптуры появилась у него во время музицирования на фортепиано. Вскоре появилась первая версия знаменитого памятника, реализованная Клингером в раскрашенном гипсе:


Около 1900. От Аполлона к Юпитеру.

The admiration for Beethoven as the epitome of a creative artists hit its peak at the end of the 19th and during the first third of the 20th century. The heroisation of the composer in fine arts was not restricted to Germany and Austria but was also expressed in works by French artists and in various monuments erected on the American continent.

From now on Beethoven was not depicted as a contemporary musician or inspired composer but compared to the heroically struggling titan Prometheus or even Jupiter, the highest of all gods.


1878 - 1880. Памятник Бетховену Каспара Зумбуша (Caspar Zumbusch).

The most famous Beethoven monument from the second half of the 19th century is without doubt the one created by Caspar Clemens Zumbusch (1830-1915) in Vienna. The tendency to depict Beethoven as a hero and express the meaning of his music by scores of allegorical figures is even stronger than in Friedrich Drake's draft.


1850 - 1910. Бетховен страновится "олимпийцем".

In portraits and monuments, outstanding musical achievements of a person were traditionally expressed by adding a lyre. This instrument, originally reserved for god Apoll and muses Erato and Terpsichore, can already be found in 18th century depictions of musicians and composers.

On the one hand, this motive should refer to the musical context. On the other hand, a concrete relation to the Olympian gods and muses should be established. Simultaneously, artists aimed at expressing music's divine source of inspiration.


1845 - 1900. Дальнейшее развитие боннского типа монумента.

When designing the Beethoven monument for Bonn, Ernst Julius Hähnel used a monument type that was quite popular for the honouring of middle class artists and scientists in the 19th century. The depicted person usually stood with their legs slightly apart on a more or less square pedestal which was decorated with inscriptions and reliefs. In most cases they wore contemporary clothing as well as a large coat to enlarge them optically and render them more monumental.


1845. Памятник на Мюнстерплац в Бонне.

When a competition for designing a Beethoven monument was held in Bonn, a number of more or less renowned German sculptors applied for this reputable project. In the end, the draft by Ernst Julius Hähnel, a successful sculptor from Dresden and Munich, was chosen. His concept was regarded as modern and still elevated enough.


1830 - 1845. Первый монумент.

Briefly after the composer's death, the cities of Bonn and Vienna felt the desire to put up a monument for Beethoven. As it was rather unusual to erect a monument in honour of an artist who had just died, the memorial should be fairly modern.

As a result, Vienna artist Friedrich von Amerling (1803-1887) and sculptor Ernst Julius Hähnel (1811-1891) from Dresden chose to depict Beethoven in contemporary clothing in their drafts. To express the composer's creative achievements, both artists portrayed Beethoven while composing and holding a writing feather in his right hand.