Бетховен был мулатом?

Такая версия всерьез выдвигается, например, в эссе PhD из Лос-Анджелеса Kwaku Person-Lynn1 "Beethoven: Revealing His True Identity" из его книги "Touching The Soul: Revolution In History, Culture & Critical Issues – Quick Notes". Приводим текст:

Beethoven: Revealing His True Identity

In the 15th and 16th century, written history underwent a massive campaign of misinformation and deception. WithBeethoven 2 the European slave trade in full swing, Afrikans were transported to various parts of the world and were stripped of every aspect of their humanity, and in most of western civilization, were no longer considered human. This triggered a wholesale interpretation of history that methodically excluded Afrikans from any respectful mention, other than a legacy of slavery. This can result in being taught, or socialized, from one perspective. In this instance, historical information tends to flow strictly from a European perspective. No judgment of right or wrong is being made here, only that the breadth was very narrow in scope.

In an age where history is seriously being rewritten, new information is coming forth that is shocking intellectual sensitivities. What was once considered written in stone is now melting away with the discovery of facts that heretofore have been hidden or omitted; things so different that they are generally classified as controversial or unusual.

What specifically is being referenced, is the true identity of Ludwig van Beethoven, considered Europe’s greatest classical music composer. Directly, Beethoven was a black man. Specifically, his mother was a Moor, that group of Muslim Africans who conquered parts of Europe--making Spain their capital--for some 800 years.

In order to make such a substantial statement, presentation of verifiable evidence is compulsory. Let's start with what some of Beethoven's contemporaries and biographers say about his appearance. Frau Fisher, a close friend of Beethoven, described him with “blackish-brown complexion.” Frederick Hertz, German anthropologist, used these terms to describe him: “Negroid traits, dark skin, flat, thick nose.”

Emil Ludwig, in his book “Beethoven,” says: “His face reveals no trace of the German. He was so dark that people dubbed him Spagnol [dark-skinned].” Fanny Giannatasio del Rio, in her book “An Unrequited Love: An Episode in the Life of Beethoven,” wrote “His somewhat flat broad nose and rather wide mouth, his small piercing eyes and swarthy [dark] complexion, pockmarked into the bargain, gave him a strong resemblance to a mulatto.” C. Czerny stated, “His beard--he had not shaved for several days--made the lower part of his already brown face still darker.”

Following are one word descriptions of Beethoven from various writers: Grillparzer, “dark”; Bettina von Armin, “brown”; Schindler, “red and brown”; Rellstab, “brownish”; Gelinek, “short, dark.”

Newsweek, in its Sept. 23, 1991 issue stated, “Afrocentrism ranges over the whole panorama of human history, coloring in the faces: from Australopithecus to the inventors of mathematics to the great Negro composer Beethoven.

Of course, in the world of scholarship there are those who take an opposite view. In the book The Changing Image of Beethoven by Alessandra Comini, an array of arguments are presented. Donald W. MacArdle, in a 1949 Musical Quarterly article came to the conclusion that there was “no Spanish, no Belgian, no Dutch, no African” in Beethoven's genealogy. Dominque-Rene de Lerma, the great musical bibliologist, came to the same conclusion.

Included in this amazing discussion is a reference made of Beethoven’s teacher, Andre de Hevesy, in his book, Beethoven The Man. “Everyone knows the incident at Kismarton, or Eisenstadt, the residence of Prince Esterhazy, on his birthday. In the middle of the first allegro of Haydn’s symphony, His Highness asked the name of the author. He was brought forward.

“‘What!’ exclaimed the Prince, ‘the music is by the blackamoor (a black Moor). Well, my fine blackamoor, henceforth thou art in my service.’

“‘What is thy name?’

“‘Joseph Haydn.’”

We have all been fed false information for reasons previously mentioned. It is no secret that scholars, writers, critics, advertisers and Hollywood have changed history for their own specific reasons. What is uniquely different in the intellectual landscape, people of color now have an army of sophisticated scholars to combat the continuation and dissemination of false information that has been accepted as standard, as well as the canon in academia.

It is hoped that the revealing of this information will motivate others to critically look at all data flowing in their brains for authenticity. Hollywood is notorious for changing facts. I am not saying to hate Hollywood, but we do have to hold it accountable for disseminating inaccurate depictions, especially when it changes the course of history, by which our children are influenced.

Ответ с wiki.answers.com:

The question of Beethoven's ethnicity began with the Nazis, who wanted to be certain the composer's music was "the essence of Germanic and Aryan strength." They did extensive research into birth records and found him "pure." However, modern writers have made the claim that Beethoven was, in fact, Mulatto, and many books have been written on the subject.

To begin the question of Beethoven's ethnicity, we must look at his parents and grandparents. Proponents of the "Beethoven was Black" concept point out that the composer was Flemish, and Flanders had been occupied by Spain for 200 years. It's true that Spain was home to a number of Moors (people, usually Muslims, of North African descent), but it does not mean everyone under the Spanish flag was Moorish. Beethoven's ancestry is well-documented. His father Johann was half Flemish, half German. His mother, Maria Magdalena Keverich, was the daughter of Heinrich Keverich, chief overseer of the kitchen at the palace of the Elector of Treves at Ehrenbreitstein, in Germany. Beethoven was only 1/4 Flemish. The rest of his family, including his mother, from whom proponents claim his African ancestry originated, were German and of well-to-do stock. The Flemish connection only means there is a possibility of Spanish and/or Moorish influence. A small chance. Less than a quarter.

There is the argument of Beethoven's features. His teacher, Haydn, was famously called a "blackamoor," yet portraits show he had only a red tinge to his pockmarked cheeks. Alexander W. Thayer, one of the foremost authorities on Beethoven says, "Beethoven had even more of the Moor in his features than his master, 'Haydn.'"

Beethoven's contemporaries described him as having "thick, bristly coal-black hair," a "flat, thick nose," large mouth, and what is described as alternately "ruddy" or "swarthy" complexion. In the middle of Teutonic Germany and Austria, where the average citizen had light skin, blue eyes, and blond hair, he must have made a striking, memorable presence. But what constitutes "swarthy" amongst such a population might not be what modern people consider "negroid." It just meant he was darker than the pale-skinned Germans. A Californian with a tan would have been classified as "swarthy."

It's obvious from the documented ancestry and many paintings that Beethoven was not "out of Africa," but there are some who claim his mother's family was from the Caribbean, where black slaves and Natives worked in the oversea trades. However, there is absolutely no evidence toward this claim, let alone a blood connection to African slaves. Although there is some credence to the argument that portraits were idealized, ancestral documents could have been faked, and the African and Arabic presence in Europe was suppressed by the Inquisition, a lack of undeniable evidence does not immediately prove the opposite.

The question was brought to modern science, but recent DNA evidence was inconclusive. According to the Washington Post:

The research team also said that future DNA analysis might answer lingering questions about Beethoven's ethnicity. As a young man, the dark-complexioned Beethoven sometimes was called "the Moor," and some historians have questioned whether he had African blood. Walsh said his analysis of the hair strands showed "no wrinkles or bends" typical among people of African descent, but that more tests may be conducted.

All that can be concluded about the matter of Beethoven's ethnicity is that the master of music was indeed "exotic" in looks. He might have been darker than his contemporaries, but calling Beethoven "Black" would be extremely misleading. In that day, even most people claiming to be "Moors" had lived in Europe for hundreds of years and only had darker hair to prove their ancestry. If you can call a person numerous generations removed from an African ancestor "Black," then maybe--maybe--Beethoven was Black. Just as a person whose family has lived in America for 500 years, but had an ancestor who sailed over as an African slave on a Dutch frigate, might call themselves Black.

Despite who his ancestors were, one only has to listen to the symphonies and concertos, music the deaf composer probably never heard except in his own mind, to know that he was a genius who, to this day, transcends time, age, gender, and ethnicity. Listen, don't look. Music is colorblind.

Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Was_Beethoven_Black#ixzz1hIO8d1tD

  • 1. http://sundaymorningliveblog.wordpress.com/2011/06/04/sml-30-dr-kwaku-tevin-campbell-and-qasim-basir-mooz-lum/