"LEONORE OVERTURE No. 1," C MAJOR Title page of the orchestral score This Overture, composed in 1805 and not too highly esteemed by Beethoven, was first performed with a small orchestra at Prince Lichnowsky's salon. It found no acclaim with the listeners and Beethoven withdrew it. Rediscovered after his death, however, it was published by Haslinger in Vienna in 1838. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)
"LEONORE OVERTURE No. 2," C MAJOR Title page of the orchestral score The work dates from the autumn of 1805 and was used for the performance of "Fidelio" on November 20, 1805 and the two succeeding performances. Then it disappeared and was printed only in 1842, by Breitkopf & Härtel in Leipzig. (van Hoboken, Ascona)
"LEONORE OVERTURE No. 3," C MAJOR Title page of the orchestral parts This Overture was completed in March, 1806 and used for the performances of March 29 and April 10, 1806. The first edition of the orchestral parts was published in 1810 by Breitkopf & Härtel, but the first edition of the score appeared not before 1828. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)
"OVERTURE To FIDELIO," E MAJOR Title page of the orchestral score published in 1828 This Overture was composed in May, 1814 for the revised score of "Fidelio" and was heard in the performance of May 26, 1814. For the performance of May 23, however, in other words, three days earlier, the Overture to "The Ruins of Athens" was played since the "Fidelio" Overture had not been completed. (van Hoboken, Ascona)
In the spring of 1814 Johann Michael Vogl, Schubert's well known friend, together with two of his colleagues of the Theater at the Kärtnerthor, addressed himself to Beethoven with the request that they be permitted to perform "Fidelio" at their expense. Beethoven once more revised his work, the text of which had already been revised by Treitschke. Above all, he composed a fourth overture, the "Overture to Fidelio." In this final form which is that known throughout the world, the work when performed on May 23, 1814 and with all subsequent performances had an enormous success.
KARL WEINMÜLLER (1764-1828) Engraving by David Weiss after C. Mahnke Weinmüller, one of the stars of the Vienna Opera, was a touching Rocco.
JOHANN MICHAEL VOGL (1768-1840) After a lithograph of Joseph Kriehuber Vogl, united with Schubert in an inseparable friendship, was cast in the role of Pizarro in 1814. (Beethovenhaus, Bonn)
PIZARRO WANTS TO STAB FLORESTAN, SCENE FROM THE SECOND ACT OF "FIDELIO" Engraving by V. R. Grüner This print is found in the edition of the "Wiener HoftheaterTaschenbuch" of 1815. ( National Library, Vienna)
CRITIQUE OF A "FIDELIO" PERFORMANCE In Number 63 of the Theater Journal of May 28, 1814 the chronicler gives an enthusiastic résumé of the performance of May 23, 1814. ( City Library, Vienna)
IGNAZ MOSCHELES(1794-1870) Lithography by Brandt This eminent pianist who already at the age of fourteen had made public appearances worked in Vienna under the direction of Albrechtsberger and Salieri. In 1814 Beethoven entrusted to him the task of writing a piano score of "Fidelio." (Collection Cortot, Lausanne)
PIANO SCORE OF "FIDELIO" ARRANGED BY MOSCHELES This arrangement of the third and last version of Beethoven's opera was published, in August 1814, by Artaria & Cie., Vienna. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)
THE CIRCLE OF FRIENDS: THE MALFATTI FAMILY THERESE VON MALFATTI (1792-1851) Pastel She was the daughter of a rich landowner and the niece of the well known Dr. Malfatti, a physician who for a time treated Beethoven. She became acquainted with the composer in her father's home to which Beethoven had been introduced by a mutual friend, Ignaz von Gleichenstein. Beethoven fell in love with her and asked for her hand. The rejection proved a tragedy for him. (Gleichenstein Collection)
BARON IGNAZ VON GLEICHENSTEIN (1778-1828) Lithograph The Baron was part of the Imperial administration and in 1797 became Beethoven's friend. His gay and captivating manner made him a treasured and a judicious adviser to the composer. He married Anna von Malfatti, Therese's sister. (Gleichenstein Collection)
SONATA FOR PIANO AND VIOLONCELLO, A MAJOR, opus 69 Title page with dedication to Baron von Gleichenstein The magnificent A major Sonata was dedicated to his friend who was an extraordinary cellist. It was a sign of Beethoven's gratitude. Composed in 1807-08, it was published in 1809 by Breitkopf & Härtel in Leipzig. The motto placed by the composer at the beginning of his composition "Inter lacrimas et luctum" (in tears and sadness) is in reference to the still raging war. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (CA. 1808) Pencil drawing by Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld Under the portrait an unknown hand has written: "From the old director Schnorr von Carolsfeld, of Dresden, in the year 1808 or 1809 in a sketch book of the Malfatti family in Munich. In the possession of Frau von Gleichenstein, née Malfatti in Freiburg im Breisgau."(Gleichenstein Collection)
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVFN (1806) Portrait in oil by Isidor Neugass This painting by the Viennese painter Neugass was a commission of Prince Lichnowsky. It has only small significance because it idealizes the model too strongly. (Collection Lichnowsky, Grätz)
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1805?) Oil painting, unsigned This portrait was a commission by Count Franz von Brunswick and is probably from the workshop of Neugass. (Marchesa Capponi, Florence)